Rhinobates cemiculus

Author: E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817

Rhinobatos cemiculus E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817

Diagnosis: eye diameter (maximum) 5.0-6.6 times in pre-orbital snout length, length of eye and spiracle combined 3.0-3.7 times. Rostral ridges narrowly separated, nearly joining in front. Anterior nasal lobe extending little if any; posterior nasal flap narrow. Spiracle with two well-developed folds of about same size. Thorns present around inner margin of orbits, between spiracles, on shoulders and along midline of disc and tail, only the latter distinct. Colour: brown, without distinct markings; white below, but usually a blackish blotch on snout mainly in juveniles. Size: to about 180 cm TL.

Habitat: benthic on sandy and muddy bottoms, from shallowed water to about 100 m. Slow swimming over bottom or partially buried. Food: benthic invertebrates and fishes. Reproduction: ovoviviparous, one or two litters per year, of 4-6 embryos.

Distribution: northward to northern Portugal and in Mediterranea. (common in southern part). Elsewhere, southward to Angola.

Complementary iconography. Cadenat, 1950: fig. 22 | Bini, 1967: 125-126, fig.
Eggs, embryonic and young stages. Capapé et al. ,1975: 52, fig. 1-2.